Introductory Resources

Teaching Computer Science Better to get Better Results

Guzdial, M. (2014). Teaching Computer Science Better to get Better Results. Retrieved from:

Redesigning Computer Science 101 Education with Omoju Miller

Scott Hanselman interviews(now) Dr. Omoju Miller, who received her PhD in CS from Berkeley. They discuss how computer science education is introduced to new students.

Hanselman, S. (2015). Redesigning Computer Science 101 Education with Omoju Miller. Retrieved from:

5 Tools to Introduce Programming to Kids

Introduces MIT Lab's Scratch, CMU's Alice, Hackety Hack based on Ruby, Arduino, and Lego Mindstorms.

Watters, A. (2011). 5 Tools to Introduce Programming to Kids. KQED. Retrieved from:

Computer Science Learning Opportunities

We have developed a range of resources, programs, scholarships, and grant opportunities to engage students and educators around the world interested in computer science.

(n.d.). Computer Science Learning Opportunities. Google for Education. Retrieved from: Computer Sciences

High level links in educational subjects.

n.a. (n.d.). Computer Science. Retrieved from:

Computer Science Education Statistics

Computer Science education statistics including K-12 and undergraduate demographics.

(n.d.). CS Education Statistics. Exploring Computer Science. Retrieved from:

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Teaching Standards

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Teaching Standards booklets. If the link doesn't work, use the base domain URL.

Computer Science Teachers Association. (n.d.). CSTA K-12 Computer Science Teaching Standards. Retrieved from:

Searching for Computer Science: Access and Barriers in U.S. K-12 Education

ITSE Standards for Computer Science Educators.

Google and Gallup. (2015). Searching for Computer Science: Access and Barriers in U.S. K-12 Education. Retrieved from:

ITSE Standards for Computer Science Educators

ITSE Standards for Computer Science Educators.

International Society for Technology in Education. (2015). ITSE Standards for Computer Science Educators. Retrieved from:

Scholarly Readings

Research Agenda for Computer Science Education

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the nature and scope of computer science education (CSE) research. We first distinguish CSE research from other forms of educational research, outlining its aims and identity as a research discipline. In examining the state of the art of CSE research, we attempt to categorise past research studies into general themes, reflecting the diverse contributions to CSE made over the years. Further, we critique each category, highlighting possible benefits and limitations. We argue that there has been a lack of reference to pedagogical theory, underlying most past research studies. This has resulted in a failure to provide teachers with "pedagogical content knowledge", critical to gaining useful insights into cognitive and educational issues surrounding learning. We conclude by providing guidelines for CSE research, stressing the need for a stronger connection to the theoretical frameworks of education-related disciplines such as pedagogy, epistemology, curriculum studies and psychology.

Holmboe, C., McIver, L., & George, C. (2001, April). Research agenda for computer science education. In 13th workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group (Vol. 207223).

A multi-national, multi-institutional study of assessment of programming skills of first-year CS students

ABSTRACT: In computer science, an expected outcome of a student's education is programming skill. This working group investigated the programming competency students have as they complete their first one or two courses in computer science. In order to explore options for assessing students, the working group developed a trial assessment of whether students can program.

McCracken, M., Almstrum, V., Diaz, D., Guzdial, M., Hagan, D., Kolikant, Y. B. D., ... & Wilusz, T. (2001). A multi-national, multi-institutional study of assessment of programming skills of first-year CS students. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 33(4), 125-180.

A multi-national, multi-institutional study of assessment of programming skills of first-year CS students

Preparing a new strategy for teaching introductory computer programming.

Guzdial, M., & Soloway, E. (2002). Teaching the Nintendo generation to program. Communications of the ACM, 45(4), 17-21.

In Support of Pair Programming in the Introductory Computer Science Course

ABSTRACT: A formal pair programming experiment was run at North Carolina to empirically assess the educational efficacy of the technique in a CS1 course. Results indicate that students who practice pair programming perform better on programming projects and are more likely to succeed by completing the class with a C or better. Student pairs are more self-sufficient which reduces their reliance on the teaching staff. Qualitatively, paired students demonstrate higher order thinking skills than students who work alone. These results are supportive of pair programming as a collaborative learning technique.

Williams, L., Wiebe, E., Yang, K., Ferzli, M., & Miller, C. (2002). In support of pair programming in the introductory computer science course. Computer Science Education, 12(3), 197-212.

A Media Computation Course for Non-Majors

Computing may well become considered an essential part of a liberal education, but introductory programming courses will not look like the way that they do today. Current CS1 course are failing dramatically. We are developing a new course, to be taught starting in Spring 2003, which uses computation for communication as a guiding principle. Students learn to program by writing Python programs for manipulating sound, images, and movies. This paper describes the course development and the tools developed for the course. The talk will include the first round of assessment results.

Guzdial, M. (2003, June). A media computation course for non-majors. In ACM SIGCSE Bulletin (Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 104-108). ACM.

Effective Discussion Through a Computer-Mediated Anchored Forum

This paper discusses the importance of properly using a discussion forum when one is added to a class.

Guzdial, M., & Turns, J. (2000). Effective discussion through a computer-mediated anchored forum. The journal of the learning sciences, 9(4), 437-469.

Digital game-based learning in high school computer science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation

The aim of this study was to assess the learning effectiveness and motivational appeal of a computer game for learning computer memory concepts, which was designed according to the curricular objectives and the subject matter of the Greek high school Computer Science (CS) curriculum, as compared to a similar application, encompassing identical learning objectives and content but lacking the gaming aspect.

Papastergiou, M. (2009). Digital game-based learning in high school computer science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation. Computers & Education, 52(1), 1-12.

Georgia computes!: Improving the computing education pipeline

ABSTRACT: Computing education suffers from low enrollment and a lack of diversity. Both of these problems require changes across the entire computing education pipeline. The "Georgia Computes!" alliance, funded by the National Science Foundation's Broadening Participation in Computing program, seeks to improve the computing education pipeline in Georgia. "Georgia Computes!" is having a measurable effect at each stage of the pipeline, but has not yet shown an impact across the whole pipeline.

Bruckman, A., Biggers, M., Ericson, B., McKlin, T., Dimond, J., DiSalvo, B., ... & Yardi, S. (2009, March). Georgia computes!: Improving the computing education pipeline. In ACM SIGCSE Bulletin (Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 86-90). ACM.

Questioning Video Games' Influence on CS Interest

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we examine the relationship between digital games and interest in computer science. When we undertook this research, our goal was to expand upon past work that explores video games as a positive influence on students’ interest in CS. We utilized both quantitative and qualitative research methods with a large technically and academically competent subject pool. We hypothesized that subjects with more years and intensity of playing video games would have a stronger interest in computer science. While we did find a small relationship, the proportion of the total responses accounted for by the relationship is only 8%. This suggests that while gaming may be correlated to an interest in CS, it is a small correlation and other variables must be considered more influential.

DiSalvo, B. J., & Bruckman, A. (2009, April). Questioning video games' influence on CS interest. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Foundations of Digital Games (pp. 272-278). ACM.

ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE)

This ACM Special Interest Group targets Computer Science Educators, providing a place "to discuss issues related to the development, implementation, and/or evaluation of computing programs, curricula, and courses, as well as syllabi, laboratories, and other elements of teaching and pedagogy."

ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE). Retrieved from:

Annual International Conference on Computer Science Education: Innovation and Technology

This international conference, organized by Global Science and Technology Forum (GSTF), seeks to gather best practices from the field of education, computer science, and interested professionals from other disciplines. "__Conference Theme__: The conference is designed to spark discussion among creative educators, researchers, consultants, training managers, policy makers, curriculum developers, entrepreneurs, and others in Computer Science Education."

Global Science and Technology Forum. Annual International Conference on Computer Science Education: Innovation and Technology. Retrieved from:

Journal of Computer Science Education

Computer Science Education aims to publish high-quality papers with a specific focus on teaching and learning within the computing discipline that are accessible and of interest to educators, researchers, and practitioners alike.

Taylor and Francis Publications. Journal of Computer Science Education. Current Issue Table of Contents. Retrieved from:

Learning in Context: Digital Games and Young Black Men

ABSTRACT: The authors present an exploratory study of Black middle school boys who play digital games. The study was conducted through observations and interviews with Black American middle school boys about digital games as an informal learning experience. The first goal of the study is to understand the cultural context that Black students from economically disadvantaged inner-city neighborhoods bring to playing digital games. The second goal of the study is to examine how this cultural context affects the learning opportunities with games. Third, the authors examine how differences in game play are potential factors in the discrepancy between White male gamers and Black male gamers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Finally, the authors address several opportunities within the field of informal learning to augment game play by bridging the learning that takes place within game play to the real world.

DiSalvo, B. J., Crowley, K., & Norwood, R. (2008). Learning in context: Digital games and young black men. Games and Culture.


Betsy DiSalvo

Assistant Professor, School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Tech computer science education, learning sciences, motivation, culture and technology Verified email at (2017-04-09)

Google Scholar. (n.d.) Betsy DiSalvo. Retrieved from:

Eliot Soloway

Elliot Soloway's research interests are in the use of technology in education and developing software that takes into consideration the unique needs of learners. He was one of the founders of hi-ce, the Center for Highly Interactive Computing in Education, where he works to develop technology-embedded curricula for school-based programs. He is a principal investigator of the Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools grant. He received his PhD from the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. (University of Michigan Homepage)[]

University of Michigan. (n.d.) Elliot Soloway. Retrieved from: ://

Mark Guzdial

Professor, School of Interactive Computing, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology Google Scholar topics: Computing Education, Learning Sciences & Technologies, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Verified email at (2017-04-09) (GA Tech Homepage)[] Additional Site: (Computing Education Blog)[]

Google Scholar. (n.d.) Mark Guzdial. Retrieved from:

Ongoing Projects

Blockly Games

Blockly Games is an application that teaches children with no prior experience how to program.® is a non-profit dedicated to expanding access to computer science, and increasing participation by women and underrepresented minorities. Our vision is that every student in every school should have the opportunity to learn computer science, just like biology, chemistry or algebra. organizes the annual Hour of Code campaign which has engaged 10% of all students in the world, and provides the leading curriculum for K-12 computer science in the largest school districts in the United States.

Coder for Raspberry Pi

Coder is a free, open source project that turns a Raspberry Pi into a simple platform that educators and parents can use to teach the basics of building for the web. New coders can craft small projects in HTML, CSS, and Javascript, right from the web browser.

Exploring Computer Science

Exploring Computer Science is a K-12/University computer science curriculum program in the Los Angeles Community School District.

Girls Who Code

We're a national non-profit organization dedicated to closing the gender gap in technology.

Google CS First

Over 4,600 schools have used CS First clubs to introduce computer science to students. The CS First curriculum is free and easy to use — no computer science experience required!

Hack Reactor

Hack Reactor's mission is to empower students to succeed in new careers in Software Engineering through our accelerated, best-in-class programs and our strong, caring community.

Hello Ruby

Hello Ruby started as a book on Kickstarter. It teaches uses play to teach logic required to write code. The main character in the book is a girl named Ruby.


Our mission is to bring accessible, affordable, engaging, and highly effective higher education to the world. We believe that higher education is a basic human right, and we seek to empower our students to advance their education and careers.

In the Media

Can We Fix Computer Science Education in America?

The tech industry is one of the few bright spots in a dim economy. So why aren't we teaching kids the skills they need to participate in it?

Smith, M., & Carnival, D. (2014). Celebrating Computer Science Education Week, Kids Code at the White House. . July 16, 2012. Retrieved from:

Tech Companies Work to Combat Computer Science Education Gap

Bidwell, education reporter for U.S. News & World Report, discusses the lack of computer education in secondary schools, as a follow-up to the study provided by reflected in the article tagline: 9 out of 10 schools don't offer computer science. The emphasis in this article is on the number of unfilled positions in the U.S. by 2019.

Bidwell, A. (2013). Tech Companies Work to Combat Computer Science Education Gap. U.S. News & World Report. December 27, 2013. Retrieved from:

The Danger of Requiring Computer Science in K-12 Schools

Guzdial provides reasons Computer Science should not be mandatory in K-6 schools and approached more rationally in 7-12 schools. The article has many supporting links and could be considered a starting point for K-12 CS research.

Guzdial, M. (2014). The Danger of Requiring Computer Science in K-12 Schools. BLOG@CACM. Retrieved from:

The Modernization of Computer Science Education

Borenstein discusses the challenges of preparing Computer Science graduates to work in the "real world." One of the solutions he advocates is for students to work on Open Source software projects and sees this approach as key to enabling an easy transition from school to work.

Borenstein, J. (2014). The Modernization of Computer Science Education. TechCrunch. July 24, 2014.

Celebrating Computer Science Education Week, Kids Code at the White House

This is the White House page supporting a kick off for the 2014 Week of Code.

Smith, M., & Carnival, D. (2014). Celebrating Computer Science Education Week, Kids Code at the White House. U.S. White House. December 8, 2014. Retrieved from:

School Leaders Mostly Mystified by Computer Science Education

Schaffhauser discusses the results and meaning of the [2014 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA)]( The article makes the case for standardized CS high school curriculum, moving it from elective to mandatory in the curriculum. __The Journal__ is an organ of the ACM. Browse the subject links in the page header for lists of recent articles by subject.

Schaffhauser, D. (2015). School Leaders Mostly Mystified by Computer Science Education. The Journal. February 2, 2015.