# Quantitative Research

### Introductory Videos

Introduction to Quantitative Research (watch on YouTube) David Joyner introduces Quantitative Research as part of Research Principles and Methodologies. Joyner, D. & Udacity (2016, June 6). Research Principles and Methodologies: Quantitative Research Introductory Video. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYfCBozP99U |

### Introductory Resources

How to Structure Quantitative Research Questions There is no "one best way" to structure a quantitative research question. However, to create a well-structured quantitative research question, we recommend an approach that is based on four steps: (1) Choosing the type of quantitative research question you are trying to create (i.e., descriptive, comparative or relationship-based); (2) Identifying the different types of variables you are trying to measure, manipulate and/or control, as well as any groups you may be interested in; (3) Selecting the appropriate structure for the chosen type of quantitative research question, based on the variables and/or groups involved; and (4) Writing out the problem or issues you are trying to address in the form of a complete research question. In this article, we discuss each of these four steps, as well as providing examples for the three types of quantitative research question you may want to create: descriptive, comparative and relationship-based research questions. Lund Research Ltd 2012. Retrieved from: http://dissertation.laerd.com/how-to-structure-quantitative-research-questions.php. April 26, 2017. |

Key Elements of a Research Proposal - Quantitative Design There are four main types of Quantitative research: Descriptive, Correlational, Causal-Comparative/Quasi-Experimental, and Experimental Research. It is easier to understand the different types of quantitative research designs if you consider how the researcher designs for control of the variables in the investigation. If the researcher views quantitative design as a continuum, one end of the range represents a design where the variables are not controlled at all and only observed. Connections amongst variable are only described. At the other end of the spectrum, however, are designs which include a very close control of variables, and relationships amongst those variables are clearly established. In the middle, with experiment design moving from one type to the other, is a range which blends those two extremes together. Baltimore County Public Schools. Retrieved from: https://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/researchcourse/develop_quantitative.html. April 26, 2017. |

Quantitative research design is the standard experimental method of most scientific disciplines. These experiments are sometimes referred to as true science, and use traditional mathematical and statistical means to measure results conclusively. They are most commonly used by physical scientists, although social sciences, education and economics have been known to use this type of research. It is the opposite of qualitative research. Quantitative experiments all use a standard format, with a few minor inter-disciplinary differences, of generating a hypothesis to be proved or disproved. This hypothesis must be provable by mathematical and statistical means, and is the basis around which the whole experiment is designed. Explorable. Retrieved from: https://explorable.com/quantitative-research-design. April 27, 2017. |

Quantitative research is all about quantifying relationships between variables. Variables are things like weight, performance, time, and treatment. You measure variables on a sample of subjects, which can be tissues, cells, animals, or humans. You express the relationship between variable using effect statistics, such as correlations, relative frequencies, or differences between means. Hopkins deals with these statistics and other aspects of analysis elsewhere at this site. In this article he focuses on the design of quantitative research. First I describe the types of study you can use. Next he discusses how the nature of the sample affects your ability to make statements about the relationship in the population. He then deals with various ways to work out the size of the sample. Finally he gives advice about the kinds of variable you need to measure. Hopkins. Sportscience 4(1), sportsci.org/jour/0001/wghdesign.html, 2000 (4318 words). |

Quantitative research is the numbers side of market research. It's about measurement and attaching numbers to a market - for instance market size, market share, penetration, installed base and market growth rates. Quantitative research can also be used to measure attitudes, satisfaction, commitment and a range of other useful market data and market metrics that can be tracked over time and used to generate insights as part of a wider business planning and business strategy process. Dobney - Insight and Intelligence. Retrieved from: http://www.dobney.com/Research/quantitative_research.htm. April 27, 2017. |

Quantitative Research Guidelines Quantitative research has played an important role in TESOL for a long time, but over the years the standards have shifted somewhat. In part because of the educational role TESOL Quarterly plays in modeling research in the field, it is of particular concern that published research articles meet current standards. To support this goal, the following guidelines and references are provided for quantitative research papers submitted to TESOL Quarterly. TESOL Internationl Association. Retrieved from: https://www.tesol.org/read-and-publish/journals/tesol-quarterly/tesol-quarterly-research-guidelines/quantitative-research-guidelines. April 26, 2017. |

### Research Vocabulary

Quantitative Research Definitions Data Definitions of Quantitative Research adapted from the 'Glossary: How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education' by Jack R. Fraenkel and Norman E. Wallen. |

Glossary of Key Research Terms Scientific research comes with its own vocabulary. The list here gives some of the most important terms, and the links direct straight to the definitions in Colorado State's excellent Glossary of Key Research Terms. Writing@CSU | The Writing Studio. Retrieved from: https://writing.colostate.edu/guides/index.cfm. April 26, 2017. |

### Scholarly Readings

Toward a New Classification of Nonexperimental Quantitative Research A substantial proportion of quantitative educational research is non-experimental because many important variables of interest are not manipulable. Because nonexperimental research is an important methodology employed by many researchers, it is important to use a classification system of nonexperimental methods that is highly descriptive of what we do and also allows us to communicate effectively in an interdisciplinary research environment. In this paper, the present treatment of nonexperimental methods is reviewed and critiqued, and a new, two-dimensional classification of nonexperimental quantitative research is proposed. The first dimension is based on the primary ?research objective? (i.e., description, prediction, and explanation), and the second dimension is called the ?time? dimension (i.e., cross-sectional, longitudinal, and retrospective). Johnson, B. (2001). Toward a new classification of nonexperimental quantitative research. Educational Researcher, 30(2), 3-13. |

Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: how is it done? ABSTRACT This article seeks to move beyond typologies of the ways in which quantitative and qualitative research are integrated to an examination of the ways that they are combined in practice. The article is based on a content analysis of 232 social science articles in which the two were combined. An examination of the research methods and research designs employed suggests that on the quantitative side structured interview and questionnaire research within a cross-sectional design tends to predominate, while on the qualitative side the semi-structured interview within a cross-sectional design tends to predominate. An examination of the rationales that are given for employing a mixed-methods research approach and the ways it is used in practice indicates that the two do not always correspond. The implications of this finding for how we think about mixed-methods research are outlined. Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: how is it done?. Qualitative research, 6(1), 97-113. |

### Data Sets

There are several data sets available on the internet for public analysis. Below are a couple you might be interested in using:

### Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

Choosing between qualitative and quantitative research is not always an easy task. There are some variables and phenomena that seem like they may be measurable numerically, but that really should be described qualitatively before trying to create valid constructs. The sources below should help you choose whether qualitative or quantitative research is right for you. Note that qualitative research is often used in nursing and medicine as well, and you may see sources that talk about it in those domains; generally, the concepts are relatively transferable.

This paper will discuss and analyse methodological problems of educational inquiry and especially the distinction between quantitative and qualitative approaches of research. Niglas, K. (1999). Quantitative and qualitative inquiry in educational research: is there a paradigmatic difference between them?. |

Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A View for Clarity This paper compares and contrasts two different approaches utilized in research on education: quantitative and qualitative research. A description of these two approaches is followed by a discussion of how the components of these two approaches differ. Philosophical assumptions, methods/types, purposes/goals, question/hypotheses, those being researched, those conducting the research, and data/data analysis are examined. In order to enhance the understanding of these different approaches, two service-learning research projects are discussed with a focus on these components. Finally, what is gained and lost with each approach is presented. Castellan, C. M. (2010). Quantitative and qualitative research: A view for clarity. International journal of education, 2(2), 1. |

Quantitative Vs. Qualitative Research: When to Use Which Regardless of the subject of your study, you have just two types of research to choose from: qualitative and quantitative. How much you know (or suspect) about your area of research and your respondents will determine exactly which kind of research is right for you. Most people will need a combination of the two to get the most accurate data. Mora, M. (2010) Quantitative Vs. Qualitative Research: When to Use Which. Retrieved from: https://www.surveygizmo.com/survey-blog/quantitative-qualitative-research/ |

Nursing Research/Theory: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Nursing Research/Theory ? Quantitative vs. Qualitative. (2015) Retrieved from: http://nursing.utexas.edu/norr/html/links/research_qua.html |

Nursing Resources: Qualitative vs. Quantitative One-page guide for students. Nursing Resources: Qualitative vs. Quantitative (2017). Retrieved from: http://researchguides.ebling.library.wisc.edu/c.php?g=293229&p=1953453 |

Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Comparison of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Quantitative and qualitative research are commonly considered to differ fundamentally. Yet, their objectives as well as their applications overlap in numerous ways. Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Comparison of Qualitative and Quantitative Research (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://atlasti.com/quantitative-vs-qualitative-research/ |

Qualitative and quantitative research for small business If you?re a time-starved entrepreneur, there?s little doubt that market research can appear a daunting prospect. Where do you begin? You might already feel like there aren?t enough hours in the day as you attempt to establish your business, but it?s vital that you ring-fence some time to sit down and better understand your industry before you go ahead with new business ideas. Qualitative and quantitative research for small business (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://www.bl.uk/business-and-ip-centre/articles/qualitative-and-quantitative-research-for-small-business |

Qualitative versus Quantitative Research One-page guide to qualitative vs quantitative research. Qualitative versus Quantitative Research (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://www.xavier.edu/library/students/documents/qualitative_quantitative.pdf |

Quantitative and Qualitative Research What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative research? In a nutshell, quantitative research generates numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers. Qualitative Research on the other hand generates non-numerical data. Quantitative and Qualitative Research. (n.d.) Retrieved from: https://explorable.com/quantitative-and-qualitative-research?gid=1582 |